In Fun with repunit divisors I posed the following challenge:

Prove that every prime other than 2 or 5 is a divisor of some repunit. In other words, if you make a list of the prime factorizations of repunits, every prime other than 2 or 5 will show up eventually.

My previous post explained two different proofs. At the end of “Fun with repunit divisors” I also posed a series of follow-up challenges; here are solutions to those.

*Compute a repunit which is divisible by 2011 (you’ll probably want to use a computer!).*As we now know from the second proof (using Fermat’s Little Theorem), the repunit with ones must be divisible by . So I guess a computer is not really necessary after all! However, what if we want to compute the

*smallest*repunit which is divisible by ? In that case we can compute , , , … until we get zero. However, we don’t have to actually compute a bigger and bigger repunit each time! Each repunit is related to the previous one by an application of the function . So it suffices to keep only the*remainder*at each step, and apply to each remainder to get the next (reducing when needed). For example, we start out by computing , , , , but at the next step we can reduce to get . Then we compute , then , and so on. Iterating this process on a computer is very fast, and in a fraction of a second we find that is the smallest repunit divisible by . For example, I computed this using Haskell by defining

f p x = (10*x + 1) `mod` p smallestRep p = (+1) . length . takeWhile (/= 0) . iterate (f p) $ 1

*Prove that every prime other than 2 or 5 is actually a divisor of infinitely many repunits.***Proof**: Note that multiplying, say, by gives ; multiplying by gives , and so on. In general, we can see that the repunit with digits always evenly divides the repunit with digits whenever evenly divides . So if is a divisor of then it is also a divisor of for all .*Prove that every integer which is not divisible by 2 or 5 is a divisor of some repunit.***Proof**: suppose has the prime factorization . We know that each is a divisor of some repunit . Then, by the argument above, must be a divisor of . As a simple example, ; divides , divides , and is a repunit itself. Hence must be a divisor of , since . (Actually, we can make this a bit more precise in order to find a much smaller repunit that must evenly divide. Can you see how?)*Generalize all of the above to repunits in bases other than 10.*In base , we can define a repunit of length to be . Everything above is still true as long as we replace the special excluded primes and with whichever primes show up in the prime factorization of the base .

*What’s so special about repunits here? Can you generalize to other sorts of numbers?*I’ll leave this one open for the time being! There are probably lots of interesting ways you could answer this question.