### Meta

### Categories

- algebra (47)
- arithmetic (85)
- books (34)
- calculus (7)
- challenges (57)
- combinatorics (29)
- complex numbers (6)
- computation (82)
- convergence (9)
- counting (38)
- famous numbers (48)
- fibonacci (18)
- fractals (13)
- games (34)
- geometry (72)
- golden ratio (8)
- group theory (28)
- humor (8)
- induction (8)
- infinity (19)
- iteration (24)
- links (76)
- logic (9)
- meta (43)
- modular arithmetic (30)
- number theory (108)
- open problems (11)
- paradox (1)
- pascal's triangle (8)
- pattern (105)
- people (23)
- pictures (74)
- posts without words (41)
- primes (57)
- probability (9)
- programming (20)
- proof (91)
- puzzles (18)
- recursion (16)
- review (24)
- sequences (28)
- solutions (31)
- teaching (15)
- trig (3)
- Uncategorized (6)
- video (19)

### Archives

- January 2020 (6)
- December 2019 (4)
- November 2019 (2)
- October 2019 (5)
- September 2019 (7)
- August 2019 (3)
- July 2019 (5)
- May 2019 (4)
- April 2019 (2)
- March 2019 (3)
- February 2019 (3)
- January 2019 (4)
- November 2018 (3)
- October 2018 (4)
- September 2018 (4)
- August 2018 (6)
- July 2018 (2)
- June 2018 (5)
- May 2018 (3)
- April 2018 (5)
- March 2018 (4)
- February 2018 (3)
- January 2018 (4)
- December 2017 (3)
- November 2017 (3)
- October 2017 (1)
- September 2017 (1)
- July 2017 (4)
- June 2017 (4)
- May 2017 (9)
- April 2017 (7)
- March 2017 (5)
- February 2017 (4)
- January 2017 (3)
- December 2016 (4)
- November 2016 (6)
- October 2016 (6)
- September 2016 (2)
- August 2016 (5)
- July 2016 (2)
- June 2016 (4)
- May 2016 (4)
- April 2016 (2)
- March 2016 (3)
- February 2016 (9)
- January 2016 (8)
- December 2015 (5)
- November 2015 (29)
- August 2015 (3)
- June 2015 (2)
- April 2015 (1)
- May 2014 (1)
- December 2013 (1)
- October 2013 (1)
- July 2013 (1)
- June 2013 (1)
- May 2013 (1)
- April 2013 (3)
- March 2013 (3)
- February 2013 (2)
- January 2013 (5)
- December 2012 (3)
- November 2012 (4)
- October 2012 (5)
- September 2012 (1)
- August 2012 (4)
- July 2012 (1)
- June 2012 (6)
- May 2012 (2)
- April 2012 (3)
- March 2012 (1)
- February 2012 (4)
- January 2012 (5)
- December 2011 (1)
- November 2011 (7)
- October 2011 (4)
- September 2011 (6)
- July 2011 (2)
- June 2011 (4)
- May 2011 (5)
- April 2011 (2)
- March 2011 (4)
- February 2011 (1)
- January 2011 (1)
- December 2010 (1)
- November 2010 (4)
- October 2010 (2)
- September 2010 (1)
- August 2010 (1)
- July 2010 (1)
- June 2010 (2)
- May 2010 (3)
- April 2010 (1)
- February 2010 (6)
- January 2010 (3)
- December 2009 (8)
- November 2009 (7)
- October 2009 (3)
- September 2009 (3)
- August 2009 (1)
- June 2009 (4)
- May 2009 (5)
- April 2009 (4)
- March 2009 (2)
- February 2009 (1)
- January 2009 (7)
- December 2008 (1)
- October 2008 (2)
- September 2008 (7)
- August 2008 (1)
- July 2008 (1)
- June 2008 (1)
- April 2008 (5)
- February 2008 (4)
- January 2008 (4)
- December 2007 (3)
- November 2007 (12)
- October 2007 (2)
- September 2007 (4)
- August 2007 (3)
- July 2007 (1)
- June 2007 (3)
- May 2007 (1)
- April 2007 (4)
- March 2007 (3)
- February 2007 (7)
- January 2007 (1)
- December 2006 (2)
- October 2006 (2)
- September 2006 (6)
- July 2006 (4)
- June 2006 (2)
- May 2006 (6)
- April 2006 (3)
- March 2006 (6)

# Category Archives: calculus

## The MacLaurin series for sin(x)

In my previous post I said “recall the MacLaurin series for :” Since someone asked in a comment, I thought it was worth mentioning where this comes from. It would typically be covered in a second-semester calculus class, but it’s … Continue reading

## Irrationality of pi: the integral that wasn't

And now for the punchline! Today we’ll show that, for large enough values of , completing the proof of the irrationality of . First, let’s show that is positive when . We know that is positive for . But I … Continue reading

Posted in algebra, calculus, convergence, famous numbers, proof, trig
Tagged inequality, integral, irrational, Niven, pi
8 Comments

## Irrationality of pi: derivatives of f

In my previous post in this series, we defined the function and showed that . Today we’ll show the surprising fact that, for every positive integer , although and are not necessarily zero, they are always integers. (The notation means … Continue reading

Posted in calculus, famous numbers, proof
Tagged derivatives, irrationality, Ivan Niven, pi, proof
10 Comments

## Irrationality of pi: the unpossible function

Recall from my last post what we are trying to accomplish: by assuming that is a rational number, we are going to define an unpossible function! So, without further ado: Suppose , where and are positive integers. Define the function … Continue reading

Posted in calculus, famous numbers, proof
Tagged irrational, Ivan Niven, pi, proof, symmetric
7 Comments

## Irrationality of pi

Everyone knows that —the ratio of any circle’s diameter to its circumference—is irrational, that is, cannot be written as a fraction . This also means that ‘s decimal expansion goes on forever and never repeats …but have you ever seen … Continue reading

## The Most Beautiful Equation in the World

This post is a special shout-out to my former students who are now taking calculus (if you don’t know any calculus, just hang tight… there will be more calculus-less math goodness coming your way soon). This post is 100% money-back … Continue reading

Posted in calculus, famous numbers, proof
46 Comments