
Join 715 other subscribers
Meta
Categories
 algebra (47)
 arithmetic (86)
 books (35)
 calculus (7)
 challenges (59)
 combinatorics (31)
 complex numbers (6)
 computation (83)
 convergence (9)
 counting (38)
 famous numbers (49)
 fibonacci (18)
 fractals (13)
 games (34)
 geometry (73)
 golden ratio (8)
 group theory (28)
 humor (8)
 induction (8)
 infinity (19)
 iteration (24)
 links (77)
 logic (12)
 meta (43)
 modular arithmetic (30)
 number theory (108)
 open problems (11)
 paradox (1)
 pascal's triangle (8)
 pattern (106)
 people (23)
 pictures (74)
 posts without words (44)
 primes (57)
 probability (9)
 programming (20)
 proof (93)
 puzzles (18)
 recursion (16)
 review (25)
 sequences (28)
 solutions (31)
 teaching (16)
 trig (3)
 Uncategorized (6)
 video (19)
Archives
 August 2021 (2)
 June 2021 (3)
 May 2021 (1)
 March 2020 (4)
 February 2020 (1)
 January 2020 (7)
 December 2019 (4)
 November 2019 (2)
 October 2019 (5)
 September 2019 (7)
 August 2019 (3)
 July 2019 (5)
 May 2019 (4)
 April 2019 (2)
 March 2019 (3)
 February 2019 (3)
 January 2019 (4)
 November 2018 (3)
 October 2018 (4)
 September 2018 (4)
 August 2018 (6)
 July 2018 (2)
 June 2018 (5)
 May 2018 (3)
 April 2018 (5)
 March 2018 (4)
 February 2018 (3)
 January 2018 (4)
 December 2017 (3)
 November 2017 (3)
 October 2017 (1)
 September 2017 (1)
 July 2017 (4)
 June 2017 (4)
 May 2017 (9)
 April 2017 (7)
 March 2017 (5)
 February 2017 (4)
 January 2017 (3)
 December 2016 (4)
 November 2016 (6)
 October 2016 (6)
 September 2016 (2)
 August 2016 (5)
 July 2016 (2)
 June 2016 (4)
 May 2016 (4)
 April 2016 (2)
 March 2016 (3)
 February 2016 (9)
 January 2016 (8)
 December 2015 (5)
 November 2015 (29)
 August 2015 (3)
 June 2015 (2)
 April 2015 (1)
 May 2014 (1)
 December 2013 (1)
 October 2013 (1)
 July 2013 (1)
 June 2013 (1)
 May 2013 (1)
 April 2013 (3)
 March 2013 (3)
 February 2013 (2)
 January 2013 (5)
 December 2012 (3)
 November 2012 (4)
 October 2012 (5)
 September 2012 (1)
 August 2012 (4)
 July 2012 (1)
 June 2012 (6)
 May 2012 (2)
 April 2012 (3)
 March 2012 (1)
 February 2012 (4)
 January 2012 (5)
 December 2011 (1)
 November 2011 (7)
 October 2011 (4)
 September 2011 (6)
 July 2011 (2)
 June 2011 (4)
 May 2011 (5)
 April 2011 (2)
 March 2011 (4)
 February 2011 (1)
 January 2011 (1)
 December 2010 (1)
 November 2010 (4)
 October 2010 (2)
 September 2010 (1)
 August 2010 (1)
 July 2010 (1)
 June 2010 (2)
 May 2010 (3)
 April 2010 (1)
 February 2010 (6)
 January 2010 (3)
 December 2009 (8)
 November 2009 (7)
 October 2009 (3)
 September 2009 (3)
 August 2009 (1)
 June 2009 (4)
 May 2009 (5)
 April 2009 (4)
 March 2009 (2)
 February 2009 (1)
 January 2009 (7)
 December 2008 (1)
 October 2008 (2)
 September 2008 (7)
 August 2008 (1)
 July 2008 (1)
 June 2008 (1)
 April 2008 (5)
 February 2008 (4)
 January 2008 (4)
 December 2007 (3)
 November 2007 (12)
 October 2007 (2)
 September 2007 (4)
 August 2007 (3)
 July 2007 (1)
 June 2007 (3)
 May 2007 (1)
 April 2007 (4)
 March 2007 (3)
 February 2007 (7)
 January 2007 (1)
 December 2006 (2)
 October 2006 (2)
 September 2006 (6)
 July 2006 (4)
 June 2006 (2)
 May 2006 (6)
 April 2006 (3)
 March 2006 (6)
Tag Archives: primitive
From primitive roots to Euclid’s orchard
Commenter Snowball pointed out the similarity between Euclid’s Orchard… …and this picture of primitive roots I made a year ago: At first I didn’t see the connection, but Snowball was absolutely right. Once I understood it, I made this little … Continue reading
The Möbius function proof, part 2 (the subset parity lemma)
Continuing from my previous post, we are in the middle of proving that satisfies the same equation as , that is, and that therefore for all , that is, is the sum of all the th primitive roots of unity. … Continue reading
Posted in arithmetic, combinatorics, complex numbers, primes, proof
Tagged circle, complex, moebius, mu, primitive, proof, roots, sum, unit, unity
3 Comments
The Möbius function proof, part 1
In my last post, I introduced the Möbius function , which is defined in terms of the prime factorization of : if has any repeated prime factors, that is, if is divisible by a perfect square. Otherwise, if has distinct … Continue reading
The Möbius function
Time to pull back the curtain a bit! My recent series of posts on complex roots of unity may seem somewhat random and unmotivated so far, but the fact is that I definitely have a destination in mind—we are slowly … Continue reading
Computing sums of primitive roots
Remember this picture? It, and other pictures like it, express the fact that for a given , if we take the primitive roots for each of the divisors of , together they make up exactly the set of all th … Continue reading
Sums of primitive roots
In my previous post, we saw that adding up all the complex th roots of unity always yields zero (unless , in which case the sum is ). Intuitively, this is because the roots are symmetrically distributed around the unit … Continue reading
Primitive roots of unity
So we have now seen that there are always different complex th roots of unity, that is, complex numbers whose th power is equal to , equally spaced around the circumference of the unit circle. Consider the first th root … Continue reading
Totient sums
I took a bit of a break to travel to Japan for a conference, but I’m back now to continue the series I started with Post Without Words #10, a followup post, and Post Without Words #11. Recall that we … Continue reading
A few words about PWW #10
If you still want to think more about the picture in my previous post, stop reading now! Here’s a simple way to think about how the picture is made, as noted by Fergal Daly. The th circle (starting with ) … Continue reading
Posted in geometry, pattern, pictures, posts without words
Tagged gcd, primitive, roots, unity
5 Comments