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# Category Archives: number theory

## Fermat’s Little Theorem: proof by modular arithmetic

In a previous post I explained four (mostly) equivalent statements of Fermat’s Little Theorem (which I will abbreviate “FlT”—not “FLT” since that usually refers to Fermat’s Last Theorem, whose proof I am definitely not qualified to write about!). Today I … Continue reading

## Four formats for Fermat: correction!

In my previous post I explained three variants on Fermat’s Little Theorem, as well as a fourth, slightly more general variant, which it turns out is often called Euler’s Totient Theorem. Here’s what I said: If and is any integer, … Continue reading

Posted in number theory, primes
Tagged correction, Euler, Fermat, little, prime, theorem, totient
2 Comments

## Four formats for Fermat

In my previous post I mentioned Fermat’s Little Theorem, a beautiful, fundamental result in number theory that underlies lots of things like public-key cryptography and primality testing. (It’s called “little” to distinguish it from his (in)famous Last Theorem.) There are … Continue reading

## The curious powers of 1 + sqrt 2: recurrences

In my previous post, we found an answer to the question: What’s the 99th digit to the right of the decimal point in the decimal expansion of ? However, the solution depended on having the clever idea to add . … Continue reading

Posted in number theory, puzzles
Tagged conjecture, digits, powers, puzzle, ratio, silver
8 Comments

## The curious powers of 1 + sqrt 2: a clever solution

Recall that we are trying to answer the question: What’s the 99th digit to the right of the decimal point in the decimal expansion of ? In my previous post, we computed for some small and conjectured that the answer … Continue reading

Posted in number theory, puzzles
Tagged conjecture, digits, powers, puzzle, ratio, silver
2 Comments

## The curious powers of 1 + sqrt 2: conjecture

In my previous post I related the following puzzle from Colin Wright: What’s the 99th digit to the right of the decimal point in the decimal expansion of ? Let’s play around with this a bit and see if we … Continue reading

Posted in number theory, puzzles
Tagged conjecture, digits, powers, puzzle, ratio, silver
3 Comments